Whewell’s Gazette: Vol. 9

Whewell’s Gazette

Your weekly digest of all the best of

Internet history of science, technology and medicine

Editor in Chief: The Ghost of William Whewell

Emblem

Volume #9

Monday 18 August 2014

Whewell’s Gazette: Vol. 9

EDITORIAL:

Well the holiday season is finally over and our editorial staff are back chained to their computers scouring cyberspace for the weeks best history of science, technology and medicine bloggage and reporting.
As already announced last week this weeks edition in addition to being posted one day too late is also somewhat curtailed due to the fact that the staff were taking a short holiday break. If as a result we failed to include your history of STEM masterwork then sorry, better luck next time.
Tomorrow we are off to interview a new managing editor more of which in due course. In the meantime read and enjoy, there is much to get your teeth into.

ON THE WEB BLOGS AND WEBSITES:

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY:
Atomic Heritage Foundation: Profiles
Atomic Heritage Foundation: Women and the Bomb
Physics Today: The Dayside: A quiet revolution
The Renaissance Mathematicus: Galileo, Foscarini, The Catholic Church, and heliocentricity in 1615 Part 1 – the occurrences: A Rough Guide.

EXPLORATION and CARTOGRAPHY:
Halley’s Log: Halley and Longitude

MEDICINE:
Perceptions of Pregnancy: Sarah Siddons and the Performance of Pregnancy
Library of Congress: Ring Around the Rosie: Metafolklore, Rhyme and Reason
The Chirugeon’s Apprentice: Disturbing Disorders: A Brief History of Harlequin Ichthyosis
History of Medicine in Oregon: Video: Videos index
Forbidden Histories: “Hypnosis in Spain (1888–1905): From Spectacle to Medical Treatment of Mediumship”. Second Online-First Article from Special Issue on Psychical Research
The Boston Globe: 19th century advances paved way for today’s Ebola treatment
NPR: The Secret History Behind The Science of Stress
Royal College of Physicians: Health and long life
Early Modern Medicine: The Mistaken Midwife

Caricature of a man-midwife as a split figure
Credit: Wellcome Library, London

Caricature of a man-midwife as a split figure
Credit: Wellcome Library, London

Psychology Today: A Long, Mad Century: Why did the (long) nineteenth century see the rise of the psychiatric asylum?
Museum of Health Care: Snakes, Mistakes, and Mythology! The Use of the Rod of Asclepius and the Caduceus in Modern Medicine
The Chirugeon’s Apprentice: The Anaesthetized Queen & the Path to Painless Childbirth
Ptak Books: Affairs of the Heart: Blood and Clouds, 1664

Image source National Library of Medicine

Image source National Library of Medicine

CHEMISTRY:
Conciatore: Neri’s Cabinet, Part 1
EARTH & LIFE SCIENCES:

Forbes: The Cautious Pope and the Evolution Encyclical
The Conversation: Exhibit B puts people on display for Edinburgh International Festival
SciTech Connect: Celebrate ESA’s 99th Year by Learning the History of Ecology
The Return of Native Nordic Fauna: Treating humans as unnatural
Fossil History: George Busk: Scenes in History
Yovisto: Meet Sue, the Dinosaur
BHL: The Sea Dog: Exploring Man’s Discovery & Classification of the Shark
Society of Biology: The most admirable man in all science?
British Library: The Crystal Palace Game

Crystal Palace Game

Crystal Palace Game

American Museum of Natural History: Frozen Urine

Frozen Urine: Robert Hooke Micrographia

Frozen Urine: Robert Hooke Micrographia

The Beagle: Missives from John Murray Publishers: ‘My dear Hooker’: Charles Darwin’s friendship with Joseph Hooker, and how The Origin of Species couldn’t have been written without Kew Gardens
Environmental History Resources: Podcast: The Broken Promise of Agricultural Progress
The Primate Diaries: Fire Over Ahwahnee: John Muir and the Decline of Yosemite

April 1963 (!) issue of “Scientific American” on Controversial Continental Drift h/t David Bressan

April 1963 (!) issue of “Scientific American” on Controversial Continental Drift h/t David Bressan

TECHNOLOGY:

The New York Times: At Bletchley Park, a Reminder About the History of Cracking Codes

Othmeralia: The Art of Advertising: Dr Seuss advertised ball bearings!

Atlas Obscura: Warheads & Reactor Cores: Cuba’s Nuclear Legacy

Echoes From The Vault: Drawing With a Camera Lucida

Brass Camera Lucida in carrying case, ca. 1860’s

Brass Camera Lucida in carrying case, ca. 1860’s

Yovisto: John Logie Baird and the Television
Inside the Science Museum: The Historic Heart of our Information Age Gallery
Georgian Gentleman: Pimp my carriage Mister Coachbuilder!
Inside the Science Museum: Sending messages across the Atlantic: 156 years on from the first transatlantic cable

Specimens of the first transatlantic cable. Credit Science Museum

Specimens of the first transatlantic cable. Credit Science Museum

META:- HISTORIOGRAPHY, THEORY, RESOURCES and OTHER:

Guardian: Podcast: Did Aristotle invent science?
Genotopia: On city life, the history of science, and the genetics of race
Mother Nature Network: 7 scientists killed by their own experiments
Strange Behaviors: The Wall of the Dead: A Memorial to Fallen Naturalists
Active History: Digital Approaches to 19th Century Globalisation
Youtube: Video: John Wilkins: Philosophy of Science – An Introduction
Youtube: Video: John Wilkins: The Demarcation Problem – Science & Pseudoscience
Darin Hayton: Historian of Science: 20-Sided Reviewer’s Die for History of Science
From the Hands of Quacks: Exhibition review: Photo Essay: Vesalius at 500
Wellcome Library: The Well-travelled Archive
ESOTERIC:

Prospect: Science gives power to the supernatural

Notches: The Bishop’s New Stockings, or The Dangers of Love Magic
Conciatore: Alchemy School Reprise
Conciatore: Filippo Sassetti
History of Alchemy: Podcast: Rosicrucianism

BOOK REVIEWS:

Fiction Reboot Daily Dose: MedHum Monday Presents: A Review of Skeleton Crew
Word & Film: After “The Knick”: 7 Fascinating Books on the History of Medicine
TELEVISION:

Slate: How Accurate Is The Kick’s Take on Medical History?

New York Academy of Medicine: Beard Dipping: New York Medicine 1900 Style
BBC: The Beauty of Anatomy
RADIO:
BBC: Plants: From Roots to Riches: Dynamic Rainforest
Guardian: Play Preview: Margaret Thatcher’s surprising relationship with Dorothy Hodgkin
ANNOUNCEMENTS:

The Friends of Charles Darwin: It’s easy to become a Friend of Charles Darwin ‘FCD’ and it doesn’t cost anything!

ChoM News: Casper Morley Epsteen Papers Now Open

Alcohol and Drugs History Society: ADHS conference, 18-21 June 2015 (call for papers)
History and Philosophy of the Language Sciences Program August-December 2014
The Royal Society Print Shop now selling history of STEM prints!
National Maritime Museum: Expert talk: The Art of Longitude – the Famous Quest from Print to Film 4 Sept.
School of Advanced Studies University of London: Institute of English Studies: Biennial London Chaucer Conference: Science, Magic and Technology 10-12 July 2015 Call for Paper
New York Academy of Medicine: Festival of Medical History and the Arts, “Art, Anatomy, and the Body: Vesalius 500″ 18 October 2014
BSHS: Announcement: The Francis Bacon Award in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Publishers Weekly: New Book: Generic: The Unbranding of Modern Medicine
NYAM: Festival of Medical History and the Arts, “Art, Anatomy, and the Body: Vesalius 500” 18 Oct 2015: Registration
National Maritime Museum: Longitude in London Walking Tour with @beckyfh 30 August 2014

Blue plaque marking the workshop of Thomas Tompion and George Graham, Fleet Street (Rebekah Higgitt)

Blue plaque marking the workshop of Thomas Tompion and George Graham, Fleet Street (Rebekah Higgitt)

Smithsonian.com: The Smithsonian Wants You! (To Help Transcribe Its Collections)
CRASSH: Conference: Does the Museum Just Preserve the Museum? 12-13 Dec 2014
Caro C: Ada Lovelace Day 2014 – A celebration of Women in STEM at the Royal Institute of Great Britain, London
Historiens de la santé: CfP Asylum Geographies: International Conference for Historical Geographers 5-10th July 2015, London.
LOOKING FOR WORK?

National Science Foundation: Antarctic Artists and Writers Program

Washington University in St. Louis: Tenure-Track Assistant Professor – History of Medicine
University of Bristol: Wellcome Trust PhD Studentship: ‘The Life of Breath’ Philosophy of Medicine
Wellcome Trust: Sir Henry Wellcome Postdoctoral Fellowships

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Whewell’s Gazette: Vol. 8

Whewell’s Gazette

Your weekly digest of all the best of

Internet history of science, technology and medicine

Editor in Chief: The Ghost of William Whewell

Emblem

Volume #8

Monday 11 August 2014

EDITORIAL:

Our editorial-staff is back from the first part of their holiday and managed to scrape together a somewhat deficient new edition of our links aggregator for the last seven days of Internet history of science, technology and medicine. If they missed your brilliant definitive blog post, sorry!   WE missed slightly less than we might have done because the spirit of seventeenth-century alchemist and glassmaker Antonio Neri popped over to help Mr Whewell in the absence of those who are supposed to do the job, for which we are very grateful

Next weeks edition will also be somewhat curtailed as the editorial-staff are going away again for the weekend. You just can’t get good workers these days! As a result next weeks edition will appear on Tuesday and not our regular Monday.

 

ON THE WEB BLOGS AND WEBSITES:

 

BIRTHDAYS OF THE WEEK: William Hamilton and John Venn

Birthdays

Aperiodical: John Venn is 180

Hamilton

Irish Philosophy: What has Hamilton to do with philosophy?

Ernst Haeckel

Letters from Gowana: Ernst Haeckel, The Scientist as an Artist

Embryo Project: Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel

Youtube: Video: Proteus 2004

"Nothing is constant but change! All existence is a perpetual flux of being and becoming!"

“Nothing is constant but change! All existence is a perpetual flux of being and becoming!”

Shells and Pebbles: “Illegal Science” – The Case of Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) and German Biology Education

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY:

The Renaissance Mathematicus: “…realigning the heavens with a single stroke of the brush.” – Really?

Perimeter Institute: 10 Great Quotes from Richard Feynman

APS: Focus: Landmarks – Discovery of Particles inside the Proton

Science Notes: August 8 is Paul Dirac’s birthday

Leaping Robot: Remembering Dr Comet

The Nuclear Secrecy Blog: The Kyoto misconception

BBC: Will the Rosetta mission finally end our fear of comets?

Comets in History

Science Notes: August 10 marks the passing of Henry Moseley.

Starts With A Bang: The Man Who Invented the 26th Dimension

Physics Today: Navier-Stokes equations remain elusive

EXPLORATION and CARTOGRAPHY:

CBC News: Franklin search: Jim Balsillie, warship all part of largest effort yet to find lost ships

National Maritime Museum: The Art and Science of Exploration

MEDICINE:

The Triangle: The Graduates

Early Modern Medicine: Wounded at War

Wonders and Marvels: Poisoning Enemies in the Ancient Mideast

From The Hands of Quacks: Surgeons & Surgical Kits

Thought Catalog: Sick Roses: Disease And The Art of Medical Illustration

Boing boing: Dery on Disease and Art

CHEMISTRY:

The Public Domain Review: “O, Excellent Air Bag”: Humphry Davy and Nitrous Oxide

Shells and Pebbles: The Chemical Skeleton: Why Chemistry Mattered to 18th-century Medicine

BN-525-Gaubius

 

EARTH & LIFE SCIENCES:

A Medley of Potpourri: Alfred Russel Wallace

Letters from Gonwana: African Paleoclimate and Early Hominin Evolution

TECHNOLOGY:

Yovisto: Nicolas-Jacques Conté and the Pencil

Science Notes: August 5 is Neil Armstrong’s birthday

Ptak Books: Digital “Computers” 1450-1750: Memory and Calculating on the Fingers and Hands

Oxford Centre for Life-Writing: Alexi Baker on science, sales and spectacles in 18th-century London

Ri Science: One of the first ever drawings of a fuel cell (1842)

tumblr_n9iy4udaNW1tedol3o2_1280

Yovisto: Marvin Minsky and Artificial Neural Networks

The Atlantic: The Never-Before-Told Story of the World’s First Computer Art (It’s a Sexy Dame)

META:- HISTORIOGRAPHY, THEORY, RESOURCES and OTHER:

Cross-Check: A Brief Correspondence on Copernicus, Descartes, Kant, Darwin, Freud, George Ellis and Thomas Nagel (among Others)

The Recipes Project: First Monday Library Chat: Rijksmuseum

Guardian: Academics fear for Warburg Institute’s London Library, saved from the Nazis

Somatosphere: In the Journals, July 2014 – Part 1

John Stewart: Wikipedia in the Classroom

The H–Word Blog: Not moribund at all! An historian of medicine’s response to Richard Horton

Wellcome Library: Is Medical History Dead?

The Chirugeon’s Apprentice: Being a Medical History Blogger

ESOTERIC:

Early Modern Experimental Philosophy: Astrology and the novatores

The Appendix: Divine Reverie: Revelation, Dream Interpretation, and Teeth in Antiquity

homunculus: On the side of the angels

Yovisto: Abu Ma’shar al-Balkhi – The Prince of Astrologers

Nautilus: Why We Can’t Rule Out Bigfoot

Conciatore: Report from Parnassus

Conciatore: The Curious Reader

BOOK REVIEWS:

Chemical Heritage Society: Peter J. Bowler. Darwin Deleted: Imagining a World without Darwin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013. 328 pp.

Academia.edu: Web of Nature: Martin Lister (1639-1712), the First Archaeologist…

TELEVISION:

Slate: How Accurate Is The Knick’s Take on Medical History?

Dr. William Halsted, inspiration for Clive Owen's character in AtTheKnick,  operating in 1904

Dr. William Halsted, inspiration for Clive Owen’s character in AtTheKnick, operating in 1904

NYAM: Bare-knuckle surgery? Why no gloves on The Knick

NYAM: It’s All in the Details

ANNOUNCEMENTS:

New Book: Piers Hale: Political Descent. Malthus, Mutualism and the Politics of Evolution

Hyperallergic: 15 Million Pages of Medical History are Going Online

Drawing of an embryo from “Hand-book of Physiology” by William Senhouse Kirkes (1860) via Wellcome Library

Drawing of an embryo from “Hand-book of Physiology” by William Senhouse Kirkes (1860) via Wellcome Library

New Book: Russian California, 1806-1860: A History in Documents

History of Science Society: HSS 2014 –– Preliminary Program

LOOKING FOR WORK?

Jonathan Eisen’s Lab: Director of Charles Darwin research Station in Galapagos

Saxton Bampfylde: Director The Warburg Institute, University of London

Call for John Rylands Research Institute Visiting Fellowships: Applications in the areas of Revolutions in Print, Religions and Science and Medicine are especially welcome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Whewell’s Gazette: Vol. 7

Whewell’s Gazette

Your weekly digest of all the best of

Internet history of science, technology and medicine

Editor in Chief: The Ghost of William Whewell

Emblem

Volume #7

Monday 04 August 2014

 

EDITORIAL:

We are already up to the seventh edition of our little Internet journal, which seeks to anthologise all the best of the histories of science, medicine and technology to be found in cyberspace in the last seven days. Seven was also the number of the wandering stars or planets counted in the astronomy of the ancients a fact reflected in the names of our astrological week: Sun-day, Moon-day, Mars-day (Tuesday is Mardi in French), Mercury-day (Wednesday is Mercredi in French), Jupiter-day (Thursday is Jeudi in French) Venus-day (Friday is Vendredi in French) and Saturn-day.

Wheel of properties of the seven planets Bohme 1682

Wheel of properties of the seven planets Bohme 1682

Astronomy, but not astrology, was just one of the multitudinous interests of the extraordinary seventeenth-century polymath Robert Hooke (28.07.1635-3.03.1703 ns) who is our birthday boy for this edition. Our favourite Hooke expert Dr Felicity Henderson (@felicityhen) has sent off a Google Doodle proposal for Hooke’s Micrographia, which celebrates its 350th anniversary in 2015. We hope her endeavours will be crowned with success.

 

This Week’s Featured Tweet: A series of thought provoking tweets from Nicholas Evans (@neva9257) on the use of the word science:

Pro-tip: things get weird immediately after you start the sentence “science is…” “Science” variously describes 1) a collection of facts; 2) a series of criteria for confirming those facts; 3) a set of methods for pursuing those criteria;4) an institution housing those methods; 5) a collection of agents that inhabit, guide and modify that institution; 6) all of the above;7) none of the above;8) some combination 1-7. So the second you start with “science is good/bad/awesome/evil/neutral/bunnies/etc.” I’d love to know about which “science” you are talking.

 

ON THE WEB BLOGS AND WEBSITES:

 

BIRTHDAYS OF THE WEEK: Robert Hooke

British Library: Fleas, moulds and plant cells: under a 17th century microscope with Robert Hooke

History of Geology: July 18, 1635(os): Robert Hooke

The Royal Society: Microscopic views of a spider (spot the error!)

It’s not a spider it’s a harvestman! h/t Matthew Cobb

It’s not a spider it’s a harvestman! h/t Matthew Cobb

Robert Hooke’s London: Micrographia inspires artists and creative writers

New York Academy of Medicine: Robert Hooke’s Micrographia (Item of the Month)

Renaissance Mathematicus: Making the indiscernible visible: Robert Hooke’s Micrographia

Wallification: Happy Birthday to Robert Hooke

Science Museum: Brought to Life: Robert Hooke (1635-1703)

Hooke’s London: A mackerel sky

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY:

Guardian: Smashing Physics: How we discovered the Higgs boson (podcast)

Uncertain Principles: The Fermi Alternative

Forbes: Launching today: The Georges Lemaître: Last of the European ATV Space Vehicles

Guardian: The dreams of invisibility

Medievalists Net: A New Set of Fourteenth Century Planetary Observations

planets-e1406490275693

The Renaissance Mathematicus: Johannes Kepler’s Somnium and Katharina Kepler’s Trial for Witchcraft: The emergence of a myth

The Renaissance Mathematicus: How much can you get wrong in an eight hundred word biographical sketch of a very famous sixteenth and seventeenth-century mathematicus and philosophicus? – One helluva lot it seems?

galileo-300x263

Youtube: Video: Carl Anderson’s Positron Photograph made 2 August 1932

The Curious Wavefunction: Celebrating the 1939 Leo Szilard letter to FDR and setting the record straight

Yovisto: John Tyndall and the Physics of Air

EXPLORATION and CARTOGRAPHY:

Board of Longitude Project: A pirate map

University Library of Utrecht: Cuba or Cyprus? : a remarkable copy of the Mercator-Hondius atlas from 1606

MEDICINE:

BBC: When gin was full of sulphuric acid and turpentine

Fiction Reboot Daily Dose: MedHum Monday: Getting the Word Out with the Robert L. Brown History of Medicine Collection

Circulating Now: The Question of Rest for Women

OUP Blog: Video: Does Pain Have a History?

New York Academy of Medicine: Naissance Macabre: Birth, Death, and Female Anatomy

CHoM News: Medical Heritage Library Digitizes Ida Cannon’s “Social Work in Hospitals”

The Recipes Project: Sweet as Honey

NPR: Why Somebody’s Mummy Can Teach You About Heart Disease

Irish Examiner: The Anatomy of a Lie – The Irish woman who lived as a man to practice medicine

BBC: The man who helped save 50 million lives

Guardian: Influenza: How the Great War helped create the greatest pandemic ever know

CHEMISTRY:

Yovisto: Stephanie Kwolek and the Bulletproof Vest

Kim Renfield: Rivalry over the First Periodic Table

Science Notes: August 3 marks the passing of Richard Willstätter

EARTH & LIFE SCIENCES:

3 Quarks Daily: Killing Things

Darin Hayton: Ernst Haeckel’s Letter to E.D. Cope

Youtube: Video: German Bone Wars Musical! Harald Rosenberger “Der Kampf um die Knochen”

The Boston Globe: Blaschka’s sea creatures surface anew at Harvard

Motherboard: What Wiped Out the Dinosaurs? Very, Very Bad Luck

New Website: William Smith Online

The Sloane Letters Blog: Strange Pigs

The Embryo Project: Leonard Hayflick (1928-)

The Public Domain Review: Adriaen Coenen’s Fish Book (1580)

Fish Book

Sandwalk: Obituary: Walter Gehring (1939-2014)

Science Notes: August 1 is Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de la Marck’s birthday

TECHNOLOGY:

The Atlantic: In 1858, People Said the Telegraph Was ‘Too Fast for the Truth’

Science Notes: July 30 is Vladimir Kozmich Zworykin’s birthday

Atlas Obscura: Electrum: The World’s Largest Tesla Coil

Retronaut: 1933: Proposed tower for the 1937 Paris Exposition

Paris Tower

Popular Science: Behind the Scenes of “The Whole Brilliant Enterprise”

Computer History Museum: The Cryotron: Extremely Rare Superconducting Digital Circuits Come to CHM

IEEE Spectrum: Frank Malina: America’s Forgotten Rocketeer

Ptak Books: A finely designed microscope ad, 1890

Renaissance Utterances: Jost Amman and the Wire Drawing Bench

Andrea M: Adolfo Wildtat’s Ear Shaped Entry Phone 1927

META:- HISTORIOGRAPHY, THEORY, RESOURCES and OTHER:

Conciatore: The Neighbors Reprise

Literacy of the Present: How Do You Like Your Science? Rare, Medium or Well-Done?

Yovisto: Karl Popper and the Philosophy of Science

Atomic Heritage Foundation: B Reactor Tours

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics: What Great Scientists Did When They Weren’t Doing Great Science

Cyborgology: An Extremely Brief History of Science and Technology Studies

Compass Wallah: East India Company & The Scientific Revolution

India House: The Sale Room

India House: The Sale Room

Conciatore: Celebrates his one-year bloggiversary: Gratitude

ESOTERIC:

Astrologie in der Frühen Neuzeit: Astrology textbooks in different movements in the 16th century

Parapsychology: On the Antiquity of Psychic Phenomena

Nancy Marguerite Anderson: The Sasquatch Story

Heterodoxology: Launching “Occult Minds”: official website of my postdoctoral research project

History of Alchemy: Podcast: Christina of Sweden

BOOK REVIEWS:

Cambridge Journals: Immortal Longings: F.W.H. Myers and the Victorian Search for Live after Death

Times Higher Education: Political Descent: Malthus, Mutualism, and the Politics of Evolution in Victorian England, by Piers J. Hale

Chemical Heritage Foundation: Down, but Not Out Edward Shorter. How Everyone Became Depressed: The Rise and Fall of the Nervous Breakdown.

LSE: Are We All Scientific Experts Now? By Harry Collins

Brain Pickings: Magnificent Maps: Cartography as Power, Propaganda, and Art

ANNOUNCEMENTS:

National Life Stories invites applications for the Goodison Fellowship to increase public knowledge and awareness of oral history (includes oral history of science)

Queen Mary University of London: CfP Being Modern: Science and Culture in the early 20th century.

The Sloane Letters Blog: An explanation for absence: Shark Bites and Sloane Bobs

Scientific American: Nature at War: A special collection of articles originally published between 1914 and 1918

Somatosphere: Foreign Correspondents: call for reviewers and books to be reviewed

New Website: William Smith Online

Royal College of Physicians: Exhibition: The Anatomy of a Building: Denys Lasdun and the Royal College of Physicians 8 Sept 2014-13 Feb 2015

The Wellcome Library: The UK Medical Heritage Library: uniting digitised collections

Veterinary History London: The 41st Congress of the World Association for the History of Veterinary Medicine (WAHVM) 10-13 September 2014

Wharf.co.uk: What’s on: Ships, Clocks & Stars: The Quest For Longitude at National Maritime Museum

EXHIB_ships480

Gravity Fields: Lecture: Newton and the Apothecary Dr Anna Marie Roos 25 September 2014

LOOKING FOR WORK?

University of Kent: Grading Evidence of mechanisms in physics and biology PhD Studentship and Postdoc Research Associate (philosophy of science)

Princeton University Press Editorial Assistant

Science Museum Group Explainer

IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT:

The editorial staff of Whewell’s Gazette are going on holiday tomorrow and will have little time and possibly very little Internet access so there will probably not be an edition of your favourite history of science, technology and medicine link aggregator next week or if there is it will be severely curtailed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Whewell’s Gazette: Vol. 6

Whewell’s Gazette

Your weekly digest of all the best of

Internet history of science, technology and medicine

Editor in Chief: The Ghost of William Whewell

Emblem

Volume #6

Monday 28 July 2014

 

EDITORIAL:

Another week and another edition of the history of science, medicine and technology weekly digest for your delectation. This weeks featured birthday is British biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer Rosalind Franklin who was born 25 July 1920 and gained fame chiefly for her picture of the DNA crystal. Now it might have been the case in earlier decades that Franklin did not receive the acknowledgement for her scientific achievements that she deserved but that is now history and Franklin’s contribution to the discovery of the structure of DNA and the injustice that was possibly done to her has been written about, lectured on, broadcast in TV and radio and generally made very, very public, so could the Franklin fan club please stop moaning about it and instead maybe emphasise some of her other equally important scientific work; she wasn’t just a one trick pony.

 

ON THE WEB BLOGS AND WEBSITES:

 

BIRTHDAYS OF THE WEEK: Rosalind Franklin

Rosalind_Franklin

Hark a Vagrant:

Chemical Heritage Foundation: James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin

The Primate Diaries: Rosalind Franklin and the Discovery of DNA

Yovisto: Rosalind Franklin and the Beauty of the DNA Structure

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY:

AEON: Cognitive celebrity: Albert Einstein was a genius, but he wasn’t the only one

Corpus Newtonicum: Newton’s Working Practices (2) – I did it my way …

Symmetry: Exploratorium exhibit reveals the invisible

Yovisto: Friedrich Bessel and the Distances of Stars

Blink: Newton on the Ganges

New York Times: TV preview: Testing the Big Kaboom Theory: ‘Manh(a)ttan’, Atomic Bomb Drama on WGN

Science News: Logarithms celebrate their 400th birthday

Slate The Vault: A physicist eyewitness sketches the first atomic test

EXPLORATION:

NOAA Coast Survey: Whistler hints at artistic flair during Coast Survey stint

Yovisto: Joseph Nicollet and the Upper Mississippi River

The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition

MEDICINE:

Ask the Past: How to Improve Hearing, 1658

Nursing Clio: Desertion, Martial Manhood, and Mental Illness

Othmeralia: A Movable Atlas Showing the Mechanism of Vision

Circulating Now: The “Wound Man” in Two Recent Acquisitions

Wound Man

Boing boing: This is a 19th-century breastpump

19th century breast pump

The Recipes Project: A Peculiar Late Babylonian Recipe for Fumigation Against Epilepsy

Science made Easy: What can we learn from the Liverpool Cholera Riots?

Social History of Medicine Virtual Issue: Disease, Health & the State

Conciatore: Francesco and Bianca: were they poisoned?

CHEMISTRY:

Chemical Heritage Society: Chemical Heritage Magazine

EARTH & LIFE SCIENCES:

natural-histories-cancer-reticulatus_dynamic_lead_slide

The Embryo Project: Edward B Lewis

The Embryo Project: Charles Darwin’s Theory of Pangenesis

Discover: Inkfish: How to Lose a Finger, and Other Things I Learned from Darwin’s Library

Yovisto: Thomas Say and his Love for Beetles

 

Scientific American: 250-Year-Old Eyewitness Accounts of Icier Arctic Attest to Loss of Sea Ice

Chemical Heritage Foundation: True Science, Fake History: Francesco Redi

Parks & Gardens UK: Elephants and the royal menagerie…

Trowel Blazers: Annie Pirie Quibell

Robert Hooke’s London: Micrographia inspires artists and creative writers

New York Academy of Medicine: Robert Hooke’s Micrographia (Item of the Month)

TECHNOLOGY:

Go East London: Dr John C Taylor OBE Contributes to Greenwich ‘Ships, Clocks and Stars’ Exhibition

Conciatore: True Colour Reprise

Slate The Vault: 19th-century Japanese prints showing the trials of Western inventors

Medieval manuscripts blog: Conservation in the 17th Century

Video: Diana and Stag Automaton (c 1610) in Motion

Classically Inclined: The vexed question of the departmental photocopier, circa 1903

Epoch Times: 1600-Year-Old Goblet Shows Romans Used Nanotechnology

Yovisto: It’s a computer! – The fabulous Commodore Amiga

Yovisto: Isaac Singer and the Sewing Machine

Fornax Chimiae: Geared to the Stars

Retronaut: 1931: Airport on top of King’s Cross Station London

King

Laughing Squid: A Brief History of the Theremin, An Eerie-Sounding Early Electronic Instrument That Gave Rise to the Synthesizer

National Museum of American History: Are these John Wilkes Booth’s field glasses?

META:- HISTORIOGRAPHY, THEORY, RESOURCES and OTHER:

Leila Write Stuff: Creating an Inderdisciplinary Syllabus: The Moon as a Cultural Phenomena

The Appendix: Honey, You’re Scaring the Kids

Brain Flapping: Great moments in science (if Twitter had existed)

Guardian: From Roots to Riches: the power of plants – podcast

Books and Culture: The Two Cultures, Then and Now

Conciatore: Don Giovanni in Flanders

Ptak Science Books: On Historical Equalities of Garbage

The Daily Beast: The Scopes Monkey Trial 2.0: It’s Not About the Stupid Science-Deniers

The Royal Institution: Spotlight on Harriet Jane Moore

moore__faradays_magenetic_lab__ri_copyright_1_002a21e529f1e3

The Royal Society: Podcast: Cultivating Eureka

Social Minds: Cultivating Eureka written summary

Brain Pickings: Amelia Earhart on Marriage

io9: Einstein’s Advice to Women in Science Still Relevant More Than 60 Years Later

Uncertain Principles: Ten Inessential Papers in Quantum Physics

Ether Wave Propaganda: From Biosocial Anthropology to Social Biology: Some Thoughts on Intellectual Communities in the Post-war Sciences

Compass Wallah: Reading list: A Garden of Stars

ESOTERIC:

The Phrenological Journal

Leaping Robot: Timothy Leary SMI2Les at Carl Sagan

Medievalists Net: Murder, Alchemy and the War of the Roses

BOOK REVIEWS:

OSWEGO State University of New York: New book traces science advances to ancient Asian culture

NPR Books: How Scientists Created a Typhus Vaccine In a ‘Fantastic Laboratory

The Lancet: We are the dead: The Sick Rose: Or, Disease and the Art of Medical Illustration

Social History of Medicine: Hilary Marland, Health and Girlhood in Britain, 1874-1920

ANNOUNCEMENTS:

New Book: UBC Press: Daniel Macfarlane ‘Negotiating a River

Early Modern Experimental Philosophy: Colloquium: Principles in Early< Modern Thought

Darwin Correspondence Project: Letters Course: Letters as a Primary Source

Television: WGN’s “Manhattan” series premiere to scintillate viewers with science, secrets & sex

American Museum of Natural History: Exhibition: Natural Histories: 400 Years of Scientific Illustrations from the Museum Library

Heterodoxology: Lecture: August 6th: Andreas Kilcher lectures on “Materialization: Occult Research on the Soul”.

Jurassic London: New Book: “Irregularity” is about the tension between order and chaos in the 17th and 18th centuries

Gravity Fields: 17th Century Masterchef 28 September

British Society for the History of Science: International conference on the History of Physics 4-5 Sept 2014 Trinity College Cambridge DEADLINES!!

LOOKING FOR WORK?

British Science Association: New vision, new structure, new opportunities:- New Jobs!

Max Planck Institute for the History of Science: Head Librarian

Lancaster University: Part-time Senior Research Associate Working on the MHRA funded Davy Letters Project

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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WATCH THIS SPACE!

DUE TO CIRCUMSTANCES ENTIRELY WITHIN OUR CONTROL THIS WEEK’S EDITION OF WHEWELL’S GAZETTE WILL APPEAR TOMORROW TUESDAY 29 JULY!

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Whewell’s Gazette: Vol. 5

Whewell’s Gazette

Your weekly digest of all the best of

Internet history of science, technology and medicine

Editor in Chief: The Ghost of William Whewell

Emblem

Volume #5

Monday 21 July 2014

EDITORIAL:

We’re back for another week and a new edition of the best #histsci, #histtech and #histmed links list in the entire cosmos. This week saw the forth-fifth anniversary of the first moon landing. Although in reality, as a political propaganda exercise, this anniversary actually belongs to political history, however it also involved a lot of science and technology and is thus a suitable subject for our gazette. A comforting thought for a historian of science in the Early Modern Period, despite the twentieth century being the century of a new physics Apollo 11 was brought to the moon and back with the physics and mathematics of Isaac Newton.

ON THE WEB BLOGS AND WEBSITES:

BIRTHDAY OF THE WEEK: The Moon Landing

Leaping Robot: “Sir, That’s Not a Footprint…”

Screen-Shot-2014-07-09-at-9.18.25-AM

Othmeralia: Meet Gus

The Atlantic: 45 Years Ago We Landed Men on the Moon

Discover: The Silent Centennial of Space Exploration

Library of Congress: Envisioning Earth from Space Before We Went There

T J Owens: Envisioning Earth from Space More than 100 years ago

It's a Sphere

It’s a Sphere

Video: Apollo 11 TV Broadcast – Neil Armstrong First Step on Moon

Smithsonian Com: Video: Rare Apollo 11 Footage, Remixed and in HD

Smithsonian: Slide Rule used on Apollo 11

The Onion: The Onion reports on Moon Landing

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY:

A map of Physics

A map of Physics

Yovisto: A Wire to Connect the World – Stephen Gray’s Discovery

Atlas Obscura: The Last Original Standard Metre

Science Notes: Today in Science History July 15: Jocelyn Bell Burnell

Royal Society: The Repository: Principia

EXPLORATION:

Flinder's cat Trim

Matthew Flinder’s Cat Trim

Board of Longitude Project: Matthew Flinders – a celebration

Australian Times: Statue of Matthew Flinders, who put ‘Australia’ on the map, to be unveiled in London

The H-Word: Matthew Flinders bicentenary: statue unveiled to the most famous navigator you’ve probably never heard of.

MEDICINE:

Fiction Reboot: Daily Dose: MedHum Monday: The Becker Library and Increased Visibility

CHoM News: Peter Brent Brigham Hospital Records Open for Research

Popular Science: The Forgotten Women Who Made Microbiology Possible

The Recipes Project: How to Heal a Foreigner in Early Modern Russia:

Wellcome History: Boiled baby bees for tea

Panacea: Musings on the History of Medicine: Midwifery II: The Battle for Authority:

Wellcome Library: Welcome to Genomics History Week

Museum of Health Care: Mental Health: Tracing the history of stigma

Hyperallergic: What Did Disability Look Like in the 19th Century

The Chirurgeon’s Apprentice: The Horrors of Pre-Anaesthetic Surgery

Not Even Past: Individual Rights vs. Medical Responsibility: Human Experimentation in the Name of Science

New York Academy of Medicine: Guest curator Riva Lehrer on Vesalius 500

Guardian: The Institute of Sexology exhibition – in pictures

L0030564 Invocation a l'amour, c. 1825.

PLOS Blog: Public Health Perspectives: 1 weird tip to not die of smallpox

BBC: The virus detective who discovered Ebola in 1976

Joanne Bailey Muses on History: ‘Breeding’ a ‘little stranger’: managing uncertainty in pregnancy c. 1660-1830

leonardo embryo

Science Daily: Tooth plaque provides insights into our prehistoric ancestors diet

CHEMISTRY:

Home Before the Leaves Fall: The Chemist’s War

Medical Historical Library: The Periodic Table in the Twentieth Century On View!

EARTH & LIFE SCIENCES:

Brain Pickings: Video: A Miraculous “Accident of Physics”: Carl Zimmer Explains How Feathers Evolved, Animated.

Trowel Blazers: Florence Bascom: a true pioneer in geoscience

BibliOdyssey: Erucarum Ortus

Phenomena: The Loom: The Old Old Earth

New York Times: The Skeleton Garden of Paris

Fossil History: Mary Leaky and Zinjanthropus boisei

History of Geology: Geologist’s Nightmares

Patrick F. Clarkin Ph. D: Darwin, Oversimplified

Fossil History: Happy Birthday Richard Owen

TECHNOLOGY:

New York Times: Who Made the Super Soaker?

Medievalist Net: A Good Day for a Trebuchet

Conciatore: Glass Monks Reprise

The Appendix: The Case for Female Astronauts: Reproducing American in the Final Frontier:

Conciatore: The Portland Vase

Yovisto: Dan Bricklin and VisiCalc

Board of Longitude Project: Celebrating John Harrison

British Museum: Through time: the history behind your watch

Boing boing: Fanciful zeppelins and trains

zeppelin

 

META:- HISTORIOGRAPHY, THEORY, RESOURCES and OTHER:

Doing Good Science: Heroes, human “foibles”, and science outreach

Chronologia Universalis: Explicit computes: Notes on 5th Conference on the Science of Computus

Double Refraction: Should the history of science have relevance? Notes on the BSHS conference session

Voices of the Manhattan Project

Library of Congress: Understanding the Cosmos: Changing Models of the Solar System and the Universe

Yovisto: Cracking the Code – Champollion and the Rosetta Stone

Homunculus: A feeling for flow

The Appendix: Perchance to Dream: Science and the Future

The Point: Wonder and the Ends of Inquiry

Unquiet mind of a Transdisciplinary Scholar: Science Fiction as Science Studies on the History of Science

Conciatore: Hugger-mugger

Atlanta Arts: Q&A: Prof Deborah Harkness turned study of 16th-century science, magic into popular “All Souls Trilogy”

History of Love Blog: Why you shouldn’t marry a lady of learning, 1708

beauty

Smithsonian Com: The Cannibal Club: Racism and Rabble-Rousing in Victorian England

ESOTERIC:

Heterodoxology: Books from the Esoteric Brat Pack

Science Comma: Charles Fort, WWI and Science

BOOK REVIEWS:

Slate: Rebecca Onion: “Unclaimed Treasures of Science” Even during the Cold War, these women brought feminism to STEM

Robin’s Reviews: Finding Longitude by Richard Dunn and Rebekah Higgitt

Brain-pickings: The Book of Trees: 800 Years of Visualizing Science, Religion, and Knowledge in Symbolic Diagrams

ANNOUNCEMENTS:

BBC WWI: Debate: The Psychology of War chaired by Amanda Vickery

The Nuclear Secrecy Blog: John Wheeler and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day: Talk 21 July at American Institute of Physics

CfP: 15th CONGRESS OF LOGIC, METHODOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE (CLMPS 2015)

teleskopos: Rebekah “Becky” Higgitt’s public appearances for the Longitude Season:

CfP: Failure in the Archives CELL Conference 30 October 2014-07-20

History of Science Society: New HSS Website

New Book: The University of Chicago Press: Victorian Scientific Naturalism: Community, Identity, Continuity

BBC: Radio Series: Plants: From Roots to Riches

New Book: A new collection of writing on DARWIN only £1.25 ebook

Wellcome Trust: Director’s Update: Thinking about our grant schemes

Irish Network for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine: CfP: Science in the City 3 October 2014

Phys Org: New Book reveals student life of Charles Darwin

Far Beyond Reality: New Book: Lookin’ Good: Irregularity by Jared Shurin (Ed.)

The Royal Society: Lectures: Longitude: back and forth across the years Martin Rees and Rebekah Higgitt

h-madness: CfP: Psychopathological fringes. Historical and social science perspectives on category work in psychiatry

LOOKING FOR WORK?

University of Exeter: History of Medicine doctoral studentship in collaboration with Hong Kong University

Royal College of Physicians: Project Officer, oral history project:

Academic Jobs Wiki: History of Science, Technology and Medicine 2014–2015

University of Liverpool: PhD Studentships – Longitudinal studies of the health of the poor

The Eagle has landed and so has Whewell’s Gazette for another week. Come back next Monday for another seven days of the best the Internet has to offer in #HistSTEM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Whewell Gazette: Vol. 4

Whewell’s Gazette

Your weekly digest of all the best of

Internet history of science, technology and medicine

Editor in Chief: The Ghost of William Whewell

Emblem

Volume #4

Monday 14 July 2014

EDITORIAL:

Our fourth volume starts with a special collection of post celebrating the 158th birthday of the Serbia-American inventor engineer Nikola Tesla. In our Meta section you can find a post titled, “Beyond Tesla: History’s Most Overlooked Scientists”. This implies that Tesla has been overlooked and that others have suffered an even worse fate. Now, whilst it might be true that in an earlier age historians of science and/or technology have not paid enough attention to the life and work of this fascinating thinker but we feel the time is long past when this claim could or should be made. The last twenty to thirty years has seen a major boom in Tesla studies both popular and academic and one could now claim that he gets more attentions than he deserves at the cost of others. Put quite simply we think people should stop claiming that their hero Nikola Tesla has been overlooked, ignored, under researched or what ever and instead start addressing the myths that have been created by those pushing his historical claim to fame.

 

ON THE WEB BLOGS AND WEBSITES:

BIRTHDAY OF THE WEEK: Nikola Tesla

Motherboard: Nikola Tesla’s Pro-Eugenics, Anti-Coffee Portrait of the Future

Nikola Tesla’s Earthquake Machine

Atlas Obscura: Belgrade Tesla Museum

Atlas Obscura: New Yorker Hotel

Atlas Obscura: Nikola Tesla Street Corner

Niagara Gazette: Long Island Tesla museum gets a boost

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY:

Modern Physics: An Historical Overview of the Development of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Relativity and Cosmology

The H-Word: The private lives of Isaac Newton

Corpus Newtonicum: Newton’s Working Practices (1) – Catchy Stuff…

The Newton Papers: Dirty Laundry

Yovisto: Samuel Goudsmit and the Electron Spin

MEDICINE:

The H-Word: Saving the bacon dutrng the First World War

Guardian Political Science: Beds not Bombs: The history of anti-nuclear medical campaigning and protest

Diseases of Modern Life – Nineteenth Century Perspectives: The Nausea of Noise

Nursing Clio: A history of Neglect

Atlas Obscura: Morbid Monday: Hazardous Dr Hazard, Whose Cure was Starvation

Culture 24: Search for 16th and 17th century plague victims ahead of London skeleton excavation

Circulating Now: Illustrating De Fabrica

The Recipes Project: A Medieval Russian Hangover Cure

Wellcome Library: Spotlight: the story of a medieval chapel over time

Neurorhetoric: Brain Stimulation: Why Now, But Not Then?

The Recipes Project: Testing Drugs and Trying Cures Workshop Summary

Wellcome Library: The Great War on Disfiguring Injuries

Vox: The 19th-century health scare that told women to worry about “bicycle face”

DPLA: Wartime Mosquito Posters

Mosquito Poster

Southern Cross University: An Australian history of the subordination of midwifery (eBook)

CHEMISTRY:

Chemical Heritage Foundation: Podcast: Intoxication & Civilisation: Beer’s Ancient Past

EARTH & LIFE SCIENCES:

Letters from Gondwanda: The Early History of Ammonite Studies in Italy

The New York Academy of Medicine: A Gallery of Gauzy Wings

Hill Rock Day Fly Watermark

Hill Rock Day Fly Watermark

Science: Ancient bird had wingspan longer than a stretch limo

DPLA: 14th century bugs!

Trowel Blazers: Charlotte Murchison

A Glonk’s HPS Blog: Download my thesis – ‘Genetics, Statistics, and Regulations at the National Institute of Agricultural Botany, 1919–1969’

The Friends of Charles Darwin: 11th July, 1836: Darwin visits Napoleon

Embryo Project: Mitochondria

TECHNOLOGY:

Bridgeman Images: The Evolution of the Bicycle

Teleskopos: Longitude in Lisbon

The Appendix: The Invention of Wireless Cryptography

Wythoff1

Board of Longitude Project: Why longitude mattered in 1714

Guardian: Exhibition Review: Maritime museum finds time for celebration of HarrisonS sea clocks

H-Word: Pictorial Exhibition Review: Ships, Clocks & Stars

The first Longitude Act, given royal assent by Queen Anne on 9 July 1714.

The first Longitude Act, given royal assent by Queen Anne on 9 July 1714.

Chemical Heritage Foundation: Video: Two Tales of Ballooning

Ptak Science Books: 200,000,000 Pounds of Buttocks–Or–Putting the Color Back in the Black-and-White

Conciatore: The Material of All Enamel

Yovisto: The Airplanes of Claude Dornier

History Extra: London bridges through timeBridge

Science Notes: Today in Science History: George Eastman

META:- HISTORIOGRAPHY, THEORY and OTHER:

Early Modern Experimental Philosophy: ‘Epistemic amplification’ and Newton’s laws

Medicine, ancient and modern: Thoughts on the first “Galen Day” at Warwick

ISIS: OA Article: History and Neuroscience: An Integrative Legacy

The Recipes Project: First Monday Library Chat: Royal College of Physicians

University of Cambridge Museums: Every Boy & Girl a Scientist

whipple-construments

Yovisto: Alfred Binet and the Intelligence Test

Online Guide to Huntington Collections in the History of Science

ISIS: Focus: (OA) Knowing the Oceans: A Role for the History of Science

The Renaissance Mathematicus: Guest Post: The history of “scientist” by Melinda Baldwin

Live Science: Beyond Tesla: History’s Most Overlooked Scientists

Video: Alan Turing

Sound Cloud: Siren FM: Science: Robert Hooke

BBC: Podcast: Dr Alun Withey looks back at medical history

ESOTERIC:

Conciatore: Flexible Glass Reprise

KATEANTIQUITY: OF MISOGYNY, LUST AND VIOLENCE – THE DISTURBING WORLDVIEW OF ANCIENT LOVE MAGIC

Conciatore: Exhibition Review: Art and Alchemy

History of Alchemy: Podcast: Bernard Trevisan

THEATRE:

Broadway World: Mark H Dold to star in Barrington Stage’s BREAKING THE CODE; 7/17–8/2 (Alan Turing)

BOOK REVIEWS:

CHoM News: Paul M. Zoll: Father of Cardiac Electrotherapy

Fiction Reboot : Daily Dose: MedHum Mondays: New Books You Should Be Reading!

H-Net: From Pathology to Public Sphere: The German Deaf Movement 1848–1914

Brain Pickings: Free Radicals: How Anarchy and Serendipity Fueled Science, from Newton to Tesla to Steve Jobs

ANNOUNCEMENTS:

International Conference on the 900th Birth Anniversary of BHĀSKARĀCĀRYA

Royal Society Publishing: Free Trial

New Book: Mary Terrall, “Catching Nature in the Act: Réaumur and the Practice of Natural History in the Eighteenth Century

Forbidden Histories: Lecture: The Case of Glossolalia by Vincent Barras

New Book: Hysteria: The Rise of an Enigma

Gravity Fields: Lecture: Dr Anna Marie Roos: Newton and the Apothecary

Gravity Fields: Lecture: Dr Philip Brohan: New Uses for Old Weather

Diseases Of Modern Life: Conference: Panel on Technology and Disease at the 41st Symposium of ICOHTEC, Braşov, Romania, 29 July-2 August 2014

New Book: Geology: Frederic W Harmer: A Scientific Biography

Finding Ada: Sign up for ALD Newsletter

Technology’s Stories: Call for Participants in SHOT’S Three minute Dissitation Video Contest

Society for the Social History of Medicine: SSHM Undergraduate Prize Competition, 2014

New Book: Joseph Wright of Derby: Bath and Beyond

Royal Museums Greenwich:Longitudes Examined: Tercentenary Conference on the History of the Board of Longitude and the Determination of Longitude at Sea

http://www.rmg.co.uk/researchers/conferences-and-seminars/longitudes-examined

CfP: The Southern Association for the History of Medicine and Science (SAHMS) Seventeenth Annual Meeting

Call for Manuscripts: Journal of Trauma Nursing

LOOKING FOR WORK?

The Royal Society: Four Vacancies!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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