Fire and Ice

The geological sciences experienced major impulses during the 19th century, despite many phenomena were already reported by occasional travellers, it was the expedition of professional naturalists that started an age of exact measurement and observations – in 1848 the Russian zoologist and explorer Alexander von Middendorff studied and measured for the very first time the perennial frozen soil of Siberia, meanwhile geologists – like Charles Darwin – puzzled about the origin of fire mountains all over the world, from the Mediterranean Sea to the remote islands in the Atlantic Ocean.

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