Whewell’s Gazette: Year 2, Vol. #36

Whewell’s Gazette

Your weekly digest of all the best of

Internet history of science, technology and medicine

Editor in Chief: The Ghost of William Whewell

Cornelis Bloemaert

Year 2, Volume #36

Monday 18 April 2016

EDITORIAL:

Well we’re back and fighting fit well fighting not really fit but we are back.

Busy Owl

As you can see  our slaves staff are at their desks eager to bring you a new edition of your weekly #histSTM links list Whewell’s Gazette filled to the gunwales with all the histories of science, technology and medicine that we could trawl up out of the depths of cyberspace.

Quotes of the week:

“Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.” Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

“Edmond Halley described as a man who ‘warmed both hands before the fire of life’”. – Kate Morant (@HalleysLog)

Birthdays of the Week:

 12 April 1961 Yuri Gagarin first man in space

 

Gherman Titov, Nikita Khrushchev and Yuri Gagarin on the Red Square in Moscow 1961 Source: Wikimedia Commons

Gherman Titov, Nikita Khrushchev and Yuri Gagarin on the Red Square in Moscow 1961
Source: Wikimedia Commons

U.S. News: From the Archives: Russia’s 1961 Triumph in Space

Royal Museums Greenwich: Yuri Gagarin Statue

Youtube: Public Service Broadcasting – Gagarin

BBC News: Yuri Gagarin: Russia marks cosmonaut anniversary

Christiaan Huygens born 14 April 1629

Christiaan Huygens. Cut from the engraving following the painting of Caspar Netscher by G. Edelinck, between 1684 and 1687. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Christiaan Huygens. Cut from the engraving following the painting of Caspar Netscher by G. Edelinck, between 1684 and 1687.
Source: Wikimedia Commons

History of European Space: Christiaan Huygens: Discoverer of Titan

The Renaissance Mathematicus: The Huygens Enigma

Abraham Ortelius born 14 April 1527 

Ortelius World Map

Ortelius World Map

The Renaissance Mathematicus: Abraham Ortelius and the 16th-Centuy information age

Annie Maunder born 14 April 1868

Annie with her solar camera at the Canadian Eclipse Station in Labrador, August 1905

Annie with her solar camera at the Canadian Eclipse Station in Labrador, August 1905

 BBC Radio Ulster: Annie Maunder – The Lady Computer of Strabane

Leonardo da Vinci born 15 April 1452

 

Francesco Melzi - Portrait of Leonardo Source: Wikimedia Commons

Francesco Melzi – Portrait of Leonardo
Source: Wikimedia Commons

Medievalists.net: The Fables of Leonardo da Vinci

Forbes: Leonardo da Vinci’s Geological Observations Revolutionized Renaissance Art

The Telegraph: Leonardo da Vinci: genius or humble draftsman

The Science Museum: Leonardo da Vinci: The Mechanics of Genius

British Library: The Leonardo Notebook

Smithsonian.com: Historians Identify 35 Descendants of Leonardo da Vinci

The Renaissance Mathematicus: Pissing on a Holy Cow

The Renaissance Mathematicus: Is Leonardo da Vinci a great artist or a great scientists? Neither Actually.

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & SPACE SCIENCE:

Arizona Daily Sun: View from Mars Hill: Phoenix rising

Suhayl 14 (2015), pp.167-188: Bīrūnī’s Telescopic-Shape Instrument for Observing the Lunar Crescent

Daniel Crouch Rare Books: The most spectacular contribution of the book-maker’s art to sixteenth-century science: Hand Coloured Astronomicum Caesareum:

apianus-petrus-astronomicum-caesareum

Yovisto: Houston, we have a Problem

Atlas Obscura: This 17th Century Map of the Skies is Bursting with Mythological Creatures

AIP: E. Margaret Burbidge

Gizmodo: Astronomers Found Evidence of Exoplanets 100 Years Ago and Didn’t Know It

Smithsonian.com: Scientists Discovered Exoplanets More Than 70 Years Earlier Than Thought

AHF: Otto Frisch

The Renaissance Mathematicus: Well no, actually he didn’t

Atlas Obscura: Victorians Wanted to Contact Aliens Using Giant Mirrors

AHF: Jumbo

National Geographic: The Forgotten Soviet Space Shuttle Could Fly Itself

Space:com: Lost in Space Race: Women Denied Proper Place in History

Unsung heroes of the Space Race: A historic photo of women scientists at JPL. Credit: Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

Unsung heroes of the Space Race: A historic photo of women scientists at JPL.
Credit: Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

D News: Obama to Shine Light on Unsung Hero of Astronomy

The Atlantic: Astronomy’s Evolving Gender DynamicsThe Public Domain Review: Celestial Phenomenon Over Nuremberg, April 14th 1561

JSTOR Daily: The Star-Studded Life of Ms. Dorothy Bennett

Dorothy A. Bennett, Dr. Julio C. Tello, and Te Ata Fisher at Inka Wasi, Dr. Tello's home, Lima, Peru, 1937 George Clyde Fisher, AMNH Digital Special Collections

Dorothy A. Bennett, Dr. Julio C. Tello, and Te Ata Fisher at Inka Wasi, Dr. Tello’s home, Lima, Peru, 1937
George Clyde Fisher, AMNH Digital Special Collections

History of Physics: Newsletter

Voices of the Manhattan Project: Bill Bailey’s Interview

AHF: Britain

Voices of the Manhattan Project: To Fermi – with Love – Part 2

Forbes: Galileo and the ‘Myth’ That Won’t Go Away

EXPLORATION and CARTOGRAPHY:

Instagram: Cat on a map

British Art Studies: Looking for “the Longitude”

HNN: America’s Spanish origins confirmed

Jisc: Old Maps Online

Heritage Daily: The Roman World Interactive Map

Royal Museums Greenwich: Captain James Cook

James Cook, portrait by Nathaniel Dance-Holland, c. 1775, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich

James Cook, portrait by Nathaniel Dance-Holland, c. 1775, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich

MEDICINE & HEALTH:

Yovisto: Gregory Pincus and the Contraceptive Pill

Recommended Dose: Electrocardiogram and Diphtheria in the early 20th Century

Yovisto: James Parkinson and Parkinson’s Disease

Garland Hospital: A Unique Institution: The Cumberland and Westmorland Joint Lunatic Asylum

FullSizeRender (1)

Smithsonian.com: A Science Lecturer Accidentally Sparked a Global Craze for Yogurt

Wellcome Library: ‘Doctor’ Dee: John Dee and medical practice

Deaf History: an incomplete jigsaw: Curing deafness!

History of Medicine in Ireland: The Cost of Insanity

Early Modern Medicine: Have you got the Pox?

Yovisto: Sir James Mackenzie and the Study of Cardiac Arrhythmias

JAMA: A Harvey Anniversary: 1616–1916

medelita: 11 Ghastly Medical Instruments From the Past

Hyperallergic: Painstaking Portraits of 19th-Century Dermatology Patients

Impetigo, hand on book, from Thomas Bateman’s ‘Delineations of Cutaneous Diseases’ (1828) Image courtesy Cadbury Research Library, University of Birmingham

Impetigo, hand on book, from Thomas Bateman’s ‘Delineations of Cutaneous Diseases’ (1828)
Image courtesy Cadbury Research Library, University of Birmingham

The National Museum of American History: Surgical Instruments used at Lincoln’s Autopsy, 1865

CHoM News: Processing of the Harold Amos Papers Underway

Dr. Alun Withey: The Lost Children’s Drawings in a 19th-Century Medical Manuscript

Thomas Morris: A beetroot up the bottom

What’s Cooking @Special Collections?: A Tea, a Counter-top Ad, and a Dead President

Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh: The eighteenth century dispensary movement

TECHNOLOGY:

Conciatore: Salamander

Conciatore: Cross Pollination

Conciatore: Eyes of a Lynx

Conciatore: Washing Molten Glass

The Recipes Project: How to Avoid a Bad Buy and Anger Patrons: A Recipe for Pigment Testing

Royal Museums Greenwich: Shipbuilding: The earliest vessels

WayBack Machine: New York Times: ‘Spamming’ on the Internet

Ptak Science Books: A Note on the Future of the Future, 1911

This  cross section illustration ("Rue Future"/Future Street) is from Eugene Alfred Henard's1 (1849-1923) article, "The Cities of the Future", from American City, Volume 4, January, 1911.

This cross section illustration (“Rue Future”/Future Street) is from Eugene Alfred Henard’s1 (1849-1923) article, “The Cities of the Future”, from American City, Volume 4, January, 1911.

Strife: Attacks on Undersea Cables: a Victorian Legacy

The Transcontinental Railroad: It’s All About Steam

Smithsonian.com: 10 Bizarre, Vision-Enhancing Technologies From the Last 1,000 Years

Atlas Obscura: Inside the Spark-Filled Home of a Vintage Electrical Machine Collector

Gizmodo: London Just Opened the Entrance to This Underwater Tunnel for the First Time in 147 Years

Cutaway drawing of the tunnel-in-progress and the two entrance halls on either side of the Thames

Cutaway drawing of the tunnel-in-progress and the two entrance halls on either side of the Thames

Live Science: Lost Wright Brothers’ ‘Flying Machine’ Patent Resurfaces

Wired: From the Wurlitzer to the 808, Theses are the Greatest Drum Machines Ever Made

The Architects’ Journal: From the archive: 100 years of steel in architecture

EARTH & LIFE SCIENCES:

The Atlantic: Most of the Tree of Life is a Complete Mystery

Development: Obituary: Hans Meinhardt (1938–2016)

Niche: #EnvHist Worth Reading March 2016

Academia: The History of Reindeer Herding on the Alaska Peninsula, 1905–1950

Figure 1. Frank Taller and his daughter sitting on a reindeer, Levelock area, circa 1930. Courtesy of Alex Tallekpalek and the National Park Service, Museum  Management Program and Katmai National Park and Preserve; H-410

Figure 1. Frank Taller and his daughter sitting on a reindeer, Levelock area, circa 1930. Courtesy of Alex Tallekpalek and the National Park Service, Museum Management Program and Katmai National Park and Preserve; H-410

Archiving Early America: Thomas Jefferson: Paleontologist

Linda Hall Library: Scientist of the Day – Edouard Lartet

Notches: Wolfenden, Paederasty and Paedophilia

Inventory: Vere Gordon Childe British Historian and Archaeologist 1892–1957

History of Geology: Clash of the Titans: The Science behind the Iceberg that sank the Titanic

Forbes: How Animal Freakshows Helped the Science of Biology Develop

A two-headed calf from an Austrian taxidermy collection.

A two-headed calf from an Austrian taxidermy collection.

The Recipes Project: How to Fatten a Carp

Science League of America: A Pseudo-Huxley Quotation Part 1

Circulating Now: Some of the Most Beautiful Herbals

CHEMISTRY:

Learn Chemistry: African American chemist Percy Julian born 11 April 1899

Chemistry World: Gahn’s blowpipe

0416CW_Classic-Kit_630m

META – HISTORIOGRAPHY, THEORY, RESOURCES and OTHER:

The Atlantic: Innovation is Overrated

Yovisto: Henry Rawlinson and the Mesopotamian Cuneiform

The Behistun Inscriptions, Column 1 (DB I 1-15), sketch by Friedrich von Spiegel (1881)

The Behistun Inscriptions, Column 1 (DB I 1-15), sketch by Friedrich von Spiegel (1881)

Science Visions: Female-Authors-Only Philosophy of Science Syllabus

Platypus: The CASTAC Blog: Negotiating Expertise: The Case of Operational Research

Nautilus: It’s Time These Ancient Women Scientists Get Their Due

Historiens de la sante: Medical History Volume 60 Issue 2 April 2016 Table of Contents

HSS: Latest Issue of ISIS Volume 107 Number 1 March 2016

storify: The Future of the History of the Human Sciences

The #EnvHist Weekly

Lady Science: PCA/ACA Conference Recap

Forbidden Histories: Can Psychotherapists Benefit from History of Science Scholarship? Open Access to my Article on the Psychology of Belief in Histories of Science and the Occult

The Guardian: Olive Anderson obituary

Olive Anderson

Olive Anderson

OUP: The invention of the information revolution

The Ragged School Museum: Just why does Victorian science rule?

VOX CEPR’s Policy Portal: Purpose-built versus serendipitous innovation links: New survey evidence

Forbidden Histories: Scientific Revolutions and the “Will to Believe”: The Birth of Heliocentrism.

TrowelBlazers: TrowelBlazers 2016 Big Project(s)! – Raising Horizons

bonæ litteræ: Confessions of a Manuscript Researcher

SocPhilSciPract: April History and Philosophy of Science and Science and Technology Notes

ESOTERIC:

Atlas Obscura: Found: Isaac Newton’s Recipe for the Philosopher’s Stone

The Washington Post: Isaac Newton spent a lot of time on junk ‘science’ and this manuscript proves it

Chemical Heritage Foundation

Chemical Heritage Foundation

Atlas Obscura: Witch Hunting for Dummies: The 15th-Century Witchcraft Manual

PBS: Benjamin Franklin: Inquiring Mind: Mesmer

BOOK REVIEWS:

The Guardian: The Age of Genius: The Seventeenth Century and the Birth of the Modern Mind by A C Grayling

New Statesman: The revolutionary science of eighteenth century France

Science Book a Day: Spirals of Time: The Secret Life and Curious Afterlife of Seashells

spirals-in-time

Science Book a Day: The Most Perfect Thing: Inside (and Outside) a Bird’s Egg

History Extra: The astronomer and the witch: Johannes Kepler’s fight to save his mother from execution

Chemistry World: Failure: why science is so successful

Academia: David Beck ed. Knowing Nature in Early Modern Europe

The Argus: Mother of modern witchcraft revealed as Bletchley Park codebreaker

Science: Of humans and mathematical symbols

Scientific American: April Book Reviews Roundup

brainpickings: The Rise of Rocket Girls: The Untold Story of the Remarkable Women Who Powered Space Exploration

NEW BOOKS:

The Hakluyt Society: Sir Joseph Banks, Iceland and the North Atlantic 1772–1820: Journals, Letters and Documents

Historiens de la santé: Feverish Bodies, Enlightened Minds: Science and the Yellow Fever Controversy in the Early American Republic 

Historiens de la santé: Immunity: How Elie Metchnikoff Changed the Course of Modern Medicine 

CUP: The Smoke in London: Energy and Environment in the Early Modern City

Bloomsbury: The Birth of the English Kitchen, 1650–1850

English Kitchen

Historiens de la santé: Cajal and de Castro’s Neurohistological Methods

The MIT Press: The Age of Electroacoustics: Transforming Science and Sound

L’Harmattan: Les Cuissons Alimentaires au Moyen Age

Springer: Early Geological Maps of Europe: Central Europe 1750 to 1840

ART & EXHIBITIONS

Grup d’estudis d’història de la cartografia: Exhibition about Renacentrist cartography in Bergamo 16 April–10 July 2016

Bonner Sterne: “Argelanders Erben” im Universitätsmuseum Bonn bis 31 Juli 2016

bp18808562

Daniels Dies & Das: Eröffnung von “Argelanders Erben”

Royal Collections Trust: Maria Merian’s Butterflies 15 April–9 October Frome Museum:

548960-1439393882

Bridging the World: Benjamin Baker of Frome 5 March–21 May 2016

Dittrick Museum: Embracing Digital History: How Medicine Became Modern

Musée des Civilisations de l’Europe et de la Méditerranée, Marsella: “Made in Algeria, généalogie d’un territoire” runs till 2 May 2016

 

Fine Books & Collections: The Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at BPL to Host Exhibit, “From the Sea to the Mountains” 2 April–28 August 2016

Bay Area Reporter: Wonderful worlds of 17th-century China: Asian Art Museum Runs till 8 May 2016 

Royal College of Physicians: Scholar courtier, magician: the lost library of John Dee 18 January29–July 2016

The National Air and Space Museum: A New Moon Rises: An Exhibition Where Science and Art Meet

Bodleian Library & Radcliffe Camera: Bodleian Treasures: 24 Pairs 25 February2016–19 February 2017

AMNH: Opulent Oceans 3 October 2015–1 December 2016

Corning Museum of Glass: Revealing the Invisible: The History of Glass and the Microscope: April 23, 2016–March 18, 2017

Science Museum: Leonardo da Vinci: The Mechanics of Genius 10 February 2016–4 September 2016

Wellcome Collections: States of Mind 4 February–16 October 2016

CHF: The Art of Iatrochemistry

University of Oklahoma: Galileo’s World: National Weather Center: Exhibits

ARTFIXdaily: “We Are One: Mapping America’s Road from Revolution to Independence” Will Examine Events Preceding, During and Following the Fight for Freedom from a Cartographic Perspective and Will Open at the Art Museums of Colonial Williamsburg in March 2016

ZSL: London Zoo: Discover the fascinating wildlife of Nepal and Northern India

Royal College of Physicians: “Anatomy as Art” Facsimile Display Monday to Friday 9.30am to 5.30pm

JHI Blog: Dissenting Voices: Positive/Negative: HIV/AIDS In NYU’s Fales Library

St John’s College: University of Cambridge: Fred Hoyle: An Online Exhibition

Manchester Art Gallery: The Imitation Game

The John Rylands Library: Magic, Witches & Devils in the Early Modern World 21 January–21 August 2016

Magic Witches

allAfrica: Algeria: Exhibition on Algeria (cartography) Marseille 20 January–2 May 2016

Historical Medical Library: Online Exhibition: Under the Influence of the Heavens: Astrology in Medicine in the 15th and 16th Centuries

Somerset House: Utopia 2016: A Year of Imagination and Possibility

New York Public Library: Printmaking Women: Three Centuries of Female Printmakers, 1570–1900 Runs till 27 May 2016

Museum of Science and Industry: Meet Baby Meet Baby Every Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, & Saturday

Royal Museums Greenwich: Samuel Pepys Season 20 November 2015–28 March 2016

National Library of Scotland: Plague! A cultural history of contagious diseases in Scotland Runs till 29 May 2016

THEATRE, OPERA AND FILMS:

Discover Medical London: Medicine at the Movies

Science Museum: Ramanujan: Divining the origins of genius

Independent: Charles Darwin Disney film: Adventure movie will give naturalist the Indiana Jones treatment

The young sea-faring Charles Darwin – seen here in an 1809 portrait – is to be portrayed as an Indiana Jones-style adventurer Alamy

The young sea-faring Charles Darwin – seen here in an 1809 portrait – is to be portrayed as an Indiana Jones-style adventurer Alamy

 

The Rose Theatre: The Alchemist by Ben Jonson 7–30 June 2016

Royal Shakespeare Company: Doctor Faustus Swan Theatre Stratford-Upon-Avon 8 February–4 August 2016

Gielgud Theatre: The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time Booking to 18 June 2016

The Regal Theatre: The Trials of Galileo International Tour March 2014­–December 2017

Macrobert Arts Centre: The Trials of Galileo

Perth Concert Hall: The Trials of Galileo

Swan Theatre: Doctor Faustus 7 March–4 August 2016 

EVENTS:

Warburg Institute: ‘Maps and Society’ Lectures: Dr Elodie Duché ‘Cartography and Captivity during the Napoleonic Conflicts, 1803-1815’ 28 April 2016

CHF: Medicine 1776 24 April 2016

Discover Medical London: Walking Tour: John Dee and the History of Understanding

Boston Medical Library: Lecture: Prescription Drug Abuse in American History:

Lessons from a Century of Failures and Occasional Successes 21 April 2016

The Polar Museum: Lucky 13 Storytelling from the polar regions of the world 13 May 2016

Frome Museum: Talk: Clash of the Walruses: Was Benjamin Baker Extravagant at his Forth Road Bridge? 27 April 2016

12971073_1696177727297369_2782452545065700659_o

Royal College of Physicians: Dee late: inside Dee’s miraculous mind 9 May 2016

University of Leeds: Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine: Lecture: Object 4: Microscope 19 April 2016

Royal Society: Lecture: Hasok Chang: Who cares about the history of science? 10 May 2016

Restaurant & Weinbauernhaus “Im Sack”, Jena: Vorstellung der neuesten beiden Bücher über Erhard Weigel 23 April 2016

Museum of the History of Science: Marconi Day 23 April 2016

Birkbeck, University of London: The History of Number Theory 21 May 2016

UCL: STS Haldane Lecture: Maja Horst, University of Copenhagen: Reframing Science Communication – Culture, Identity and Organisations 5 May 2016

The Royal Society: Workshop: The Politics of Academic Publishing 1950–2016 22 April 2016RS PUBLISHINGScience Museum: Women Engineers in the Great War and after 23 April 2016

Wren Library Lincoln Cathedral: Lecture: Anna Agnarsdóttir – Sir Joseph Banks and Iceland 28 April 2016

Gresham College: Future Lectures (some #histSTM)

Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons: People Powered Medicine: A one day public symposium 7 May 2016

Discover Medical London: “Dr Dee” & The Magic of Medicine A Special Half Day Tour 27 May 2016

CHF: Brown Bag Lectures Spring 2016

NYAM: Credits, Thanks and Blame in the Works of Conrad Gessner

Discover Medical London: Walking Tour: Harley Street: Healers and Hoaxers

PAINTING OF THE WEEK:

TELEVISION:

SLIDE SHOW:

VIDEOS:

Youtube: Delay Lines

Youtube: Ada Lovelace Day 2015

Electric Beats: Browse the History of Electronic Music from 1880 to 2015

Youtube: The Medieval Mind

Youtube: Einstein’s Miracle Year: The Road to Relativity

The Ordered Universe Project: Order, The Universe and Everything: The World of Robert Grosseteste

RADIO & PODCASTS:

The Story: Story about Science: Margaret Geller: Mapping the Universe

BBC Radio 4 Drama: Beyond Endurance

ANNOUNCEMENTS:

Commission on Science and Literature DHST/IUHPST: CfP: 2nd International Conference on Science and Literature

Conf. People Places

University of Illinois, Chicago: CfP: STS Graduate Student Workshop: 16-17 September

Vatican Library Conference

Swansea University: Inaugural Lecture 5 May 2016: David Turner: Locating Disability in Britain’s Industrial Revolution

University of Greenwich: Society and the Sea Conference: 15–16 September 2016

Things

Notches: CfP. Histories of Music and Sexuality

University of London: Birkbeck: Thomas Harriot Seminar 2016: 11 July 2016

Conference Portugal

St Anne’s College: University of Oxford: Medicine and Modernity in the Long Nineteenth Century 10–11 September 2016

Society and th Sea

Canadian Society for the History and Philosophy of Science: Annual Conference Programme 28–30 May 2016

CFP Early Modern World

St Anne’s College: University of Oxford: Constructing Scientific Communities: Science, Medicine and Culture in the Nineteenth Century: Seminars in Trinity Term 2016

Hist Geo Conf

Birkbeck, University of London: CfP: Embarrassing Bodies: Feeling Self-Conscious in the Nineteenth Century 17 June 2016

Science in Public

University of Warwick: Workshop: Early Modern Experimental Philosophy, Metaphysics, and Religion 10–11 May 2016

Women hist phil

LOOKING FOR WORK:

Science Friday: Job: Podcast Producer/Reporter

University of Cambridge: University Lecturer in the Sociology of Science and Technology

University of Exeter: AHRC-funded Collaborative PhD Studentship with the University of Exeter and BT Archives: The Cultures of Radio Research in India, circa. 1890-1947

ODNB: Research Bursaries in the Humanities 2016–17

University of Leeds: AHRC-Funded PhD: “The Working Life of Evolutionary Biologists: Exploring the Culture of Scientific Research Through the Personal Archive of John Maynard Smith (1920-2004)”

University of Minnesota: Call for Applications: Travel Fellowship in the History of the Academic Health Center & Health Sciences at the University of Minnesota, 2016-2017

Queen Mary, University of London: Applications Invited for AHRC Collaborative Doctoral Studentship with RNIB: Blindness, Disability, and Literacy in Britain

University of Minnesota: Assistant Professor, History of Science and Technology

University of California – Berkeley: Lecturer – History of Science, Technology, Medicine, Environment, or Quantitative/Computational History – Department of History

Yale University: The Historical Library of the Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library at Yale University is pleased to announce its ninth annual Research Travel Award for use of the Historical Library.

University of Illinois at Chicago: Junior Fellowship in Philosophy of Quantum Gravity

 

 

 

About thonyc

Aging freak who fell in love with the history of science and now resides mostly in the 16th century.
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